Paliva (Fuels) is a scientific journal issued quarterly by the Faculty of Environmental Technology, ICT Prague. Fuels publishes papers on a broad range of topics covering exploitation, processing, upgrading, and utilization of various types of fuels, and power engineering.
English Česky
Current issue


A mathematical model of relation and origin of variation between CRI and CSR indexes

Danil Alekseev, Andrey Smirnov, Konstantin Chalyy

The aim of this work is both the mathematical relation and the value variation analysis between CRI and CSR indexes. For this aim the physical mathematical model is proposed on the basis of the ISO-test. The physical basis of the model is a material balance of a one piece of coke from the ISO sample. Results of calculating by the model are curves of CSR=f(CRI) which reproduces the regressions in analogy with CSR=a+b.CRI for most coke-producing countries. The model showed that a larger part of CSR=f(CRI) curve is linear and that a universal regression in analogy with CSR=a+b.CRI does not exist. As follows from the model, every piece of coke from the ISO sample has its own CSR=f(CRI) curve with a CRI and CSR point. Between pieces of coke, variations of CRI and CSR values can be explained by the open pore amount, the coke pores’ surface area, the statistical distribution of molecular oriented domains on the basis of Lc and the coke piece mass. In our results, pores with a geometrical orientation from the outside to the center of a coke piece and having a minimum length significantly influence on the coke quality according to CRI and CSR indexes.

Keywords: coke, NSC test, coke strength after reaction, coke reactivity, mathematical physical model; open and closed pores, molecular oriented domains
3/2021 - pages 70 - 85DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2021.03.01

Low-cost natural carbon dioxide sorbents available in the Czech Republic

Marek Staf, Barbora Votavová
The article deals with the issue of carbon dioxide adsorption on mineral samples, two of which are rich in montmorillonite and one in kaolinite. The last comparative sample is clinoptilolite, which is widely used as a sorbent in agriculture, water treatment, etc. The theoretical part summarizes several current researches on the use of bentonites as adsorbents, both in their raw form and after various chemical treatments. The study presented here does not suggest any modification procedure, but tests untreated samples and samples subjected to calcinations at temperatures of 250-750 ° C.
The calcination of units of grams was carried out by means of a carousel TGA, which made it possible to record curves of mass changes and to obtain a sufficient amount of calcinates for further analyses at the same time. From the point of view of achieving the highest specific surface area and the total pore volume, the optimal calcination temperature for the phyllosilicate samples ranged from 250 to 450 °C. Natural zeolite, on the other hand, showed a deterioration of both of these parameters at any temperature exceeding 150 °C. The same temperature dependence was found in the case of adsorption capacities determined by an automatic analyser Autosorb IQ using pure CO2. Measurements on this instrument also confirmed that selected inexpensive natural materials provide comparable adsorption capacities as the commercially available 13X molecular sieve used as a reference sample. Based on the performed analyses, the initial conditions of sample preparation for the upcoming measurement of adsorption properties on a larger apparatus operating in the PSA/TSA mode were determined.
The primary aim of the tests using the selfdesigned high-pressure adsorption unit will be to determine the adsorption capacities that will take into account the temperature and pressure conditions in a real postcombustion carbon dioxide capture system. Unlike the automatic analyser described above, it will be possible to quantify the influence of important factors such as: flue gas humidity, the presence of other permanent gases (especially SO2) and last but not least various CO2 partial pressures and absolute pressure during adsorption and desorption.
The experiments will verify the extent to which the presence of noncondensing moisture in the gaseous mixture is problematic. In the case of phyllosilicates, it is not just the parallel adsorption of H2O that affects the adsorption capacity available for CO2 capture. It will be empirically determined to what extent the swelling of the sorbent occurs in the wet gas, changing the gas flow through the layer and especially the pressure loss.
The results of measurements on high-pressure apparatus will be the basis for the design and construction of a larger pilot scale unit.
Keywords: bentonite, montmorillonite, adsorption, carbon dioxide, specific surface area
3/2021 - pages 86 - 95DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2021.03.02

Impact of the anaerobic digestion process configuration on the sludge dewaterability

Marie Vojtíšková, Pavel Jeníček

Anaerobic sludge digestion is an important tool for converting sludge into a renewable fuel - biogas. However, digested sludge can also be used as a fuel, and a fundamental parameter determining the energy value of digested sludge is as effective as possible dewatering. The main aim of the presented study was to evaluate how the anaerobic digestion (AD) technology and post-treatment technology can affect sludge dewaterability. Two technological alternatives of AD were evaluated: mesophilic (MAD) and thermophilic (TAD). In addition, also the effect of postaeration of digested was evaluated. The dewaterability was assessed using two methods based on centrifugation and filter pressing. Finally, the sludge cake concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) was compared. The results showed the difference in sludge dewaterability for the tested sludges: The sludge cake concentration was similar or slightly higher for MAD compared to TAD sludge. Post-aeration of digested sludge increased sludge cake concentration.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; biogas; dewaterability; mesophilic; post-aeration; thermophilic
3/2021 - pages 96 - 101DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2021.03.03

Transformation of coal-fired power plants on steam-gas power plants

Ondřej Hlaváček, Tomáš Hlinčík
Currently in the EU there are bigger tendencies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and phasing out of coal mining and combustion. There are some possibilities to transform current coal-fired power plant to steam-gas one. The advantages of steam-gas power plant are lower amount of emissions and higher efficiency unlike coal-fired one and stability of energy production unlike wind and solar one.
The article focuses on principle, description and ad-vantages of steam-gas power plant. It also mentions and compares methods of transformation current coal-fired power plant to steam-gas one. Finally, the possible expansion of these power plant in the Czech Republic is discussed, with regard to economic aspects and EU cli-mate change policy.
Keywords: power plant; coal; gas; repowering; gas turbine
3/2021 - pages 102 - 106DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2021.03.04

Sulfint – the Czech gas desulfurization technology

Karel Ciahotný
The article describes one of the gas desulphurisation technologies which has been developed in the Czech Republic. The technology uses washing solution of organic complexes of various metals to remove H2S from gases. H2S removal is realized by its reaction with complexes of suitable metals with organic reagents. This leads to the H2S oxidation to elemental sulfur and the reduction of the metal protected by the organic complex to a lower oxidation state, which is also bound in the organic complex. Regeneration of the washing solution is performed by oxidation of the reduced form of the complex using oxygen from the air. Complexes of iron with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrile triacetic acid or diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid are used for the preparation of washing solutions. The reaction of the ferric complex of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with H2S is accompanied by a change in the color of the washing solution from a deep red color (like red wine) to a light brown color (like coffee with milk) of the ferrous complex of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. When this complex is completely depleted, it begins to decompose to black ferrous sulfide by further contact with H2S. This reaction is irreversible. The ferrous complex of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid can be regenerated by reaction with oxygen, which also takes place at normal or elevated temperatures. The rate of this reaction is much slower compared to the reaction of H2S with the ferric complex.
The process was discovered and intensively researched at the Institute for Fuel Research in Prague and later also at the University of Chemistry and Technology Prague. The first pilot plant tests took place with the desulfurization of coke oven gas at the Coking Plant Vítězný únor in Ostrava, where the first operating facility working with the given technology was later built. Another operating facility working with this technology was put into operation at the Antonín Zápotocký High pressure gasification plant in Ústí nad Labem and was used for desulphurization of expansion gases from pressure purification of waste gas of the Rectisol system. The technology was named Sulfint. Both facilities operated successfully until the end of operation of the town-gas supply system in the Czech Republic in the mid-1990s.
Keywords: gas; desulfurisation; organic metal complexes
3/2021 - pages 107 - 112DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2021.03.05

technical support editor-in-chief