Paliva (Fuels) is a scientific journal issued quarterly by the Faculty of Environmental Technology, ICT Prague. Fuels publishes papers on a broad range of topics covering exploitation, processing, upgrading, and utilization of various types of fuels, and power engineering.
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CO2 removal from natural gas by adsorption in the condition of higher pressure

Kristýna Hádková, Viktor Tekáč, Karel Ciahotný, Zdeněk Beňo, Veronika Vrbová

LNG liquefaction is one of possible modification of natural gas for further use. In this modification, among other things, the content of carbon dioxide in the gas has to be reduced because it could freeze. The aim of this work is to test the removal of CO2 by adsorption from natural gas if there is an LNG processing plant at a control pressure station. Two different types of adsorbents were tested in both the adsorption and the desorption properties.

Scientific infrastructure for investigation of ma-terials and technologies of advanced gas cooled re

Jan Berka, Ivan Víden

Advanced gas cooled reactors is a specification for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). This reactor belongs to the group of so called Generation IV (GIV) reactors. These devices have not been built and operated yet, but research program in many countries in the world is aimed to R&D concerned GIV. Czech republic also participate in this R&D program concerning e.g. investigation of stability of candidate structural materials, helium coolant chemistry, design of main components, etc. High temperature helium loop for material testing and coolant chemistry investigation has been built in Rez near Prague, building of another helium loops is planned. Other devices used for this research are situated at universities and other research institutes.

1/2014 - pages 7 - 19DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2014.01.02

Streamlining of biogas desulphurisation

Petr Buryan

The article introduces study focusing on improving efficiency of EDTA destruction within biogas desulphurisation. The study analysed impact of addition of 0.1 wt %. of surfactant to scrubbing solution hydrogen sulphide from biogas. Although this addition did not significantly affect the EDTA destruction rate, it enabled reducing the volume of the required solution as well as the volume of the scrubbing liquid. Thereby, the addition in effect significantly reduces the economic cost of biogas desulphurisation

1/2014 - pages 20 - 23DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2014.01.03

Emissions from vehicles – comparison of current eu-ropean models

František Skácel, Viktor Tekáč

Effect of mobile source of pollution onto the ambient air quality is currently estimated using mathematical models. Those models are based on the use of emission factors for various pollutants incidence of different types of vehicles and morphology of traffic routes. Actual emission factors are replaced by various estimates e.g. limit values given by European directives for different vehicles and years (standards EURO I to VI). Another source of those factors are results of simulation models used in Europe, e.g. MEFA 06 (CZ) or HBEFA 3.1 (CH, D, A, N), or in USA (MOVES, MOBILE6.2).

Result of those simulated emissions factors for extreme cases in Czech Republic using European models are discussed. Used models, i.e. MEFA 06 a HBEFA 3.1, provide different estimates.

1/2014 - pages 24 - 28DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2014.01.04

Properties of diesel fuel from hydrotreating of middle distillates and rapeseed oil

Josef Tomášek, Josef Blažek, Jacopo Trudu, Pavel Šimáček

Hydrotreating of atmospheric gas oil (APO) and light cycle oil (LCO ) blend, which is used as raw material in the production of diesel fuel, were performed on a laboratory flow reactor at 360 °C under a pressure of 4 MPa, weight hourly space velocity about 1 h-1 and the hydrogen/feedstock ratio about 240 m3/m3. Hydrotreating of blends containing from 5 wt% to 20 wt% of rapeseed oil (RO) was performed under the same reaction conditions. It was found that RO contained in the raw material was completely converted to hydrocarbons. The yield of liquid products of hydrotreating slightly decreased with the growing amount of RO in the raw material, because propane and carbon oxides were produced as a by-product of the RO hydrotreating. Extent of RO hydrodeoxygenation was virtually the same as the cumulative extent of RO hydrodekarbonylation and hydrodekarboxylation. The presence of RO deteriorated desulphurization of raw material. Owing to that mainly C17 and C18 alkanes were formed from RO, cetane index of the hydrotreating products increased and their density decreased with increasing amount of RO in the raw material. Filterability of the products was not changed with increasing amounts of RO in the raw material

1/2014 - pages 29 - 34DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2014.01.05

Impact of local climate change on air quality surrounding Most lake

Jan Brejcha, Milena Vágnerová, Marcela Šafářová

Evaluation of fresh air quality in the remediated site Lake Most is a part of the complex project “Effect of the hydric reclamation of open cast mines on microclimate, air quality, water and soil ecosystem”. In air quality range, the solution aims to find out significance of change in air state near the lake which takes place after changes of microclimate of the area of interest. Unique opportunity of hydric reclamation of the rest pit of the Most quarry is used during the research. Measurement is carried out in two zones and one reference standpoint. Lake close vicinity (50-100 m from the lakeside) is the first zone. More distant surrounding (1-3 km from lakeside) is the second zone.  There are 8 locations around the Lake Most, in which pollutants are monitored: SO2,NO2, NH3, O3, VOC, using the passive sampling method of Radiello. In addition, the continuous measurement of SO2,NO2, CO, O3, PM10 is carried out on the stations. The obtained data are used to monitor pollution near the lake Most and its surrounding.

1/2014 - pages 35 - 44DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2014.01.06

technical support editor-in-chief