Paliva (Fuels) is a scientific journal issued quarterly by the Faculty of Environmental Technology, ICT Prague. Fuels publishes papers on a broad range of topics covering exploitation, processing, upgrading, and utilization of various types of fuels, and power engineering.
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Current issue


Ambient air interaction with lead roofing

František Skácel, Viktor Tekáč

Lead roofing represent environmental risk due to runoff loads absorbing in soil and surface water. Longterm field study lasting 112 d included monitoring of ambient air quality, pluviometric and meteorological variables, and determination of lead in aggregated week samples of wet deposition in almost natural and polluted sites. Mean lead mass concentration in runoff water of rural site was 6,8±1,6 μg/L and 14±3,2 μg/L for urban site. Those results are significantly below the limit value (50 μg/L) for irrigation water. Lead roofing probable cannot influence the surface water.

3/2017 - pages 77 - 82DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2017.03.01

Marine Fuels after 2020

Aleš Vráblík, Radek Černý
The sulphur content in motor fuels is a frequently discussed issue of the recent years and it is among the socalled hot topics. This debate has not avoided marine fuels, especially since the International Maritime Organization has agreed the implementation date for a reduction of the maximum sulphur content for open seas and oceans. The individual companies as well as different organizations do not have much time to find and choose an adequate solution, and they need to address this issue today. Even though this and further restrictions will affect the entire chain of business, from the individual refineries, through logistics, producers and additive manufacturers to specific shipping companies, the situation is largely unclear and it is not entirely clear how the market for marine fuels will look after 2020.
The required limit of 0.50 wt% of sulphur content in marine fuels could be currently solved by three major solutions. They include the transition to the newly produced low sulphur fuel, the use of alternative fuel, or the inclusion of on board scrubber technologies. Whether a particular company chooses a scrubber technology or rebuilding to low sulphur distillate fuels or switching to LNG will be largely influenced by the final price and availability of HSFOs after 2020. The price maps as well as the qualitative requirements are not yet available. Other legislative measures to reduce the undesirable emissions, greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides or solid particles, which can play an important role in LNG proliferation, can also be decisived.
The article brings the summary of current knowledge as well as overall expected trends, which also includes the latest information from the 8th Annual European Bunker Fuel Conference.
3/2017 - pages 83 - 87DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2017.03.02

Life Cycle Assessment of CO2 capture technology of high temperature carbonate loop

Kristína Zakuciová, Vladimír Kočí

Paper is focused on the current results of the study of life cycle assessment (LCA) of carbonate loop. Carbonate loop is technological system which aim is to capture CO2 from flue gases generated by the heat power plants. This paper introduces results made from life cycle assessment of carbonate loop with reference to 250MWe power unit. The assessment was made by two LCA methods – CML and ReCiPe in GaBi software. Two main were considered for the assessment: 1. 250MWe power unit without capture unit, 2. 250MWe power unit with capture unit. Scenario 2 is then divided into further three different scenarios : 2.1 Power unit in connection with carbonate loop where calcium carbonate is heated by the energy from the lignite consumption of power unit, 2.2 Power unit in connection with carbonate loop, where calcium carbonate is heated by external source of heat from natural gas, 2.3 Power unit in connection with carbonate loop, where calcium carbonate is heated by external source of heat from natural gas, and heat from carbonation process is used in a form of steam. Both LCA meth-ods are confirming the most negative scenario 2.1 if the carbonate loop is considered. The most positive scenario is 2.3 where steam can be used for further heating in the system. Also further substitution of lignite by natural gas as a source of carbonate loop heating contribute to the better environmental characterization of the whole pro-cess.

3/2017 - pages 88 - 92DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2017.03.03

Catalytic Methanization of Biogas using Nickel Catalyst

Tomáš Hlinčík, Daniel Tenkrát, Veronika Šnajdrová, Erlisa Baraj

Catalytic methanation of Biogas represents an alternative route to the currently used methods of Biogas upgrading to Biomethane. One of the most significant benefit of such approach is the incomparable increase in the overall yield of Biomethane produced from Biogas. The paper describes the basics of catalytic methanation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form methane and water. The main topic is the comparison of catalytic methanation of two model gas mixtures using a nickel based catalyst. The firs gas mixture which comprises of stoichiometric (1:4) ratio of carbon dioxide and hydrogen served as a reference gas. The second gas mixture with its composition simulated Biogas with the addition of hydrogen to obtain the stoichiometric ratio of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Both gas mixtures were tested in laboratory apparatus using fixed bed reactor under pressure up to 6 MPa and temperatures up to 320 °C. It was proved that methanation using nickel based catalyst produces gas with methane mole fraction of more than 0,9 in temperature range from 200 to 220 °C. The highest methane yield was achieved using the Biogas/hydrogen mixture under the pressure of 6 MPa where the molar fraction of methane in the produced gas reached 0,98.

3/2017 - pages 93 - 98DOI: 10.35933/paliva.2017.03.04

technical support editor-in-chief